About Movements

The Storyline of History – Finishing the Last Lap

The Storyline of History – Finishing the Last Lap

– By Steve Smith –

Too often we start with the wrong question: “What is God’s will for my life?” That question can be very self-centered. It’s about you and your life. 

The right question is “What is God’s will?” Period. Then we ask, “How can my life best serve that?” 

To glorify God’s name, you need to understand what God is doing in our generation—His purpose. To figure that out you need to know what God is doing in history: the storyline that began in Genesis 1 and will finish in Revelation 22. 

Then you can find your place in the historical plot. For example, King David uniquely served God’s purpose in His own generation (Acts 13:36) precisely because he was a man after God’s own heart (Acts 13:22). He sought to contribute his efforts toward the Father’s storyline. The Abrahamic promise (inherit land and become a blessing to the nations) took a huge leap forward when God found a man who would have his heart and serve his purposes. According to 2 Samuel 7:1, his promise of inheriting the land was fulfilled as there was no place left for the Israelites to conquer. 

Our Father’s heart is the storyline of history. He speeds up the plot when He finds protagonists who have his heart. God is calling up a new generation that will not just be in the plot but will finish the plot, hastening the story to its climax. He is calling out a generation that will one day say, “There is no place left for the Kingdom of God to expand” (as Paul wrote of one large region in Romans 15:23). 

Knowing the storyline is knowing God’s will. 

Once you know the storyline, you can take up your place in it, not as a side character but as a protagonist driven forward by the power of the Author. 

The grand storyline began in Creation (Genesis 1) and will end at the Consummation (the return of Jesus — Revelation 22). It is the story of a great race. Each generation runs a lap in this relay race. There will be a final generation that runs the last lap—a generation that sees the King receive His reward for His history-long efforts. There will be a last-lap generation. Why not us


The Purpose of History

This central storyline runs throughout the Bible, weaving its way through each of the 66 books. Yet it is easy to forget or ignore the storyline, and many people scoff at such a thought. 

Scoffers will come in the last days with scoffing, following their own sinful desires. They will say, “Where is the promise of his coming?” For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all things are continuing as they were from the beginning of creation. (2 Peter 3:3-4)

This reality describes our generation as well as Peter’s. 

What is the storyline of history? 

  • CREATION: In Genesis 1-2, God created humanity for one purpose: to become a Bride (companion) for His Son, to dwell with Him forever in loving adoration. 
  • FALL: In Genesis 3, through sin, humans fell away from God’s design—no longer in relationship with the Creator. 
  • SCATTERING: In Genesis 11, languages were confused and humanity was dispersed to the ends of the earth—out of touch with the redemption of God. 
  • PROMISE: Starting in Genesis 12, God promised to call the peoples of the earth back to Himself through the blood-price of a Redeemer proclaimed by the good-news-sharing efforts of the God’s people (the descendants of Abraham). 
  • REDEMPTION: In the Gospels, Jesus provided the price to pay the debt of sin, to buy back the people of God—people from every ethnos (people group). 
  • COMMISSION: At the end of His life, Jesus launched God’s people to finish God’s mission: the great storyline. And he promised his power to do so. 
  • DISCIPLE-MAKING: From the Book of Acts until today, God’s people have been blessed in order to accomplish one great mandate. “Go into all the world” and fulfill this redemption: making disciples of all ethnē, to be the complete Bride of Christ. 
  • CONSUMMATION: At the Consummation, Jesus will return to take up His Bride— when she is complete and ready. Everything from Genesis 3 to Revelation 22 is about calling back Jesus’ Bride from among the nations. Until the Bride is complete, the mission of the church is not finished.

Peter refers to this storyline in the last chapter of his second epistle.

But do not overlook this one fact, beloved, that with the Lord one day is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. The Lord is not slow to fulfil his promise as some count slowness, but is patient toward you, not wishing that any should perish, but that all should reach repentance. But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, and then the heavens will pass away with a roar, and the heavenly bodies will be burned up and dissolved, and the earth and the works that are done on it will be exposed. (2 Peter 3:8-10, emphasis added) 

God is patient. He will not send His Son back until the story is finished. God is not slow; he does not wish any people group (ethnos) to perish. He wants all the scattered nations of Genesis 11 to be a part of the Bride of Christ in great number. These are the ethnē Jesus referred to in Matthew 24:14. These are the ethnē he spoke of in the Great Commission (Matthew 28:18-20 “make disciples of all ethnē”). These are the ethnē pictured in Revelation 7:9. 

The climax of history’s storyline is a complete Bride presented to the Son with a great wedding banquet to celebrate. In Peter’s last chapter, he referred to the gathering of this Bride and also to Paul’s writings: 

Therefore, beloved, since you are waiting for these, be diligent to be found by him without spot or blemish, and at peace. And count the patience of our Lord as salvation, just as our beloved brother Paul also wrote to you according to the wisdom given him, as he does in all his letters.… (2 Peter 3:14-16, emphasis added) 

Paul referred to the same storyline using the same words: 

Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her, 26 that he might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the word, 27 so that he might present the church to himself in splendor, without spot or wrinkle or any such thing, that she might be holy and without blemish…. This mystery is profound, and I am saying that it refers to Christ and the church. (Eph. 5:25-27, 32, emphasis added) 

Paul referred to the same plan in Ephesians 1: 

God has now revealed to us his mysterious will regarding Christ— which is to fulfill his own good plan. 10 And this is the plan: At the right time he will bring everything together under the authority of Christ….everything in heaven and on earth. (Ephesus 1:9-10, NLT, emphasis added) 

God’s plan from Creation to Consummation has been to regather people from every language and culture to return to life in Christ, as His Bride forever. But right now, that Bride is incomplete. She is still missing an arm, an eye and a foot. Her dress is still blemished and wrinkled. While the Bridegroom stands at the altar ready to wrap his Bride in his arms, the Bride seems to be in little hurry to prepare herself for the Wedding Day. But the posture of the Bride is changing. This is one of the great distinctives of our generation, and it points us to the uniqueness of our lap in the race of history. Over the last two decades the global church has increased the pace toward engaging the remaining 8000+ unreached people groups in the world—the parts of the world still not well represented in the Bride. 

This is a good first step, but engagement was never the end goal. Since over two billion people in the world still have no access to the gospel, our efforts to engage them must change. We need to reach them, not just engage them. 

Jesus told us to pray for God’s Kingdom to come fully on earth as in heaven (Matthew 6:9-10). When the gospel engages an unreached place, the Kingdom of God must break loose. Jesus always envisioned his disciples making disciples to make disciples and churches planting churches which can plant churches. This is what happened in the Book of Acts. The DNA of early discipleship was that each disciple would be both a follower of Jesus and a fisher of men (Mark 1:17). 

Jesus is not satisfied with a small or incomplete Bride. He wants a Bride that no one can count, from all the ethnē. The only way to do this is through the Kingdom multiplying in every one of them. Momentum is building for movements of God to become common again. In the last 25 years the number of these Church Planting Movements around the world has grown from fewer than 10 to over 1,000! God is accelerating the timeline of history! 

Yet thousands of unreached people groups and places still have no multiplying church among them. With Peter, we must join God in speeding up the plot line toward its finale. 

Become a protagonist in the story—not a side character. Choose to focus on reaching every unreached people and place, and do so through Acts-like movements of multiplying disciples, churches and leaders. 

Ask “What is God’s will?” and “How can my life best serve that purpose in this generation?” 

Jesus promises His powerful presence to all who join in that effort (Matthew 28:20). 

Some generation will finish the final lap. Why not us?

Steve Smith, Th.D. (1962-2019) was co-facilitator of the 24:14 Coalition and author of multiple books (including T4T: A Discipleship Re-Revolution). He catalyzed or coached CPMs all over the world for almost two decades.

Adapted from “Kingdom Kernels: The Storyline of History— Finishing the Last Lap,” in the November-December 2017 issue of Mission Frontiers,, pages 40-43, and published on pages 17-24 of the book 24:14 – A Testimony to All Peoples, available from 24:14 or Amazon.

About Movements

My Journey Toward Movement Thinking

My Journey Toward Movement Thinking

– By Doug Lucas
President, Team Expansion –

I remember trying to define Team Expansion with the lawyer who helped us incorporate, back in 1978. It wasn’t easy. We were a collection of independent thinkers, each focused on a different location, yet united behind a common vision: church planting.

That hard-won clarity might be one reason I struggled as Team Expansion’s President, nearly 35 years later (in 2013), when I heard rumbles of a different strategy for missions. As I look back on my journey and our organization’s journey, I wonder how it took me so long to embrace it. Why was it difficult? How did I navigate the transition personally? And how are we, as an organization, seeking to apply these strategies?

First, movement thinking seemed too “fuzzy” for me, with no single source of truth. And what I heard people describe seemed too simple. Surely, if all we had to do was live out the book of Acts, why would it have taken 19 centuries for us to sort it out? I asked myself: “If there really are 1000+ movements, with millions upon millions of participants, why can’t we see them? And can we really be sure those aren’t just inflated numbers?”(1) I also wondered: “Even if the reports from Asia and Africa are true, if this is so simple, why doesn’t it seem to work in North America and Europe?”

Besides, I reasoned, we had always focused on a central nucleus: a group with 100 people in a rented or purchased building. I had been trained to define a church as having a staff, programs, and a budget. My years of training had prepared me for one paradigm: the “standard” model of a church. With all those expectations and definitions imprinted in my mind, the mold was hard to break.

So what changed – in me and in our organization? The following elements aligned to bring a paradigm shift:

1) An advocate: a person I trusted championed the cause. In our case, he’s our Executive VP. Eric has been my lifelong friend. I respect his vision and passion for the lost. As I look back at how he “won me over,” I can identify some additional things he did that were helpful.

2) Patience: the advocate spoke my language and understood how to influence me.  He didn’t lecture me or talk in a condescending way. He asked if we would allow him to begin  experimenting with training selected field workers in our organization. We gladly blessed his efforts, and he often invited me to those training to get me involved. He was sneaky in a good way. How could I welcome all those workers to a training in this new approach if I didn’t endorse it? But I still wrestled. For months and months, I poked around, trying to “get it.” But I kept asking: what exactly is “it”?

3) Endurance: The advocate never gave up on me. He held a steadfast belief that our organization would transition to movement thinking more effectively if its founder and CEO was in favor of the change. I’m not the kind of CEO who calls all the shots. But he saw the clear benefit of  having the CEO on board. He just never gave up on me. I remember specific discussions like they happened yesterday. “You mean this all happens rather simply? It just keeps multiplying? There has to be more to this.” He would just gently walk through case studies and principles with me, helping me understand.

4) Case Studies: he showed me examples.  He always looked for stories, so I could embrace an illustration – especially from one of our own fields. Once we started seeing some fruit from our early adopters, he knew I’d start talking it up. That’s part of the CEO’s role: telling stories about the organization’s ministry at its best. It helps people believe in the organization’s effectiveness and helps people feel good about partnering with our workers.

But besides these four things, I still needed TIME. I had to break the entire process down into components that I could digest a little at a time. Rather than eating the entire elephant, I just focused on one meal… sometimes just one bite. I started prayer-walking in neighborhoods of my own city (Louisville, KY) where internationals live and work. I began inviting others to meet with me in training cohorts and peer-mentoring groups. I worked with two other families to start a “My Spiritual Family” weekly gathering, using the easily-learned three-thirds (DBS) style format. (Learn more about these simple ideas at As I took these simple steps, some groups flourished while others seemed to fail. Once I started experiencing the process personally, it suddenly just clicked, within a two-week period.

Along the way, I began to group together ideas and jot them down as principles. I did this with a friend, trying to multiply from the beginning. These principles, for me, turned into a training website for my own needs, along with those of others on a similar journey. Writing down what I learned was a good practice for me. (It’s available free of charge at As I worked on More Disciples, we were blessed to have a part in testing and implementing the online training materials at That course now trains thousands of others in dozens of countries and languages all over the world. 

As an organization, we began doing frequent trainings. Thankfully, many of our workers began implementing CPM/DMM principles both personally and as teams. Today, we estimate that 80-90% of our workers have embraced DMM strategies as their primary approach. And in the entire transition, we might have lost just one family over it. It’s been a huge success. We are now a much more effective organization because of the change. Even in the middle of a pandemic, God has worked through our team members and those we’re training to baptize 2,400 people and launch 796 new groups. There are now over 4,000 active groups in the 50 countries where we serve, with over 25,000 people attending faithfully.

We’ve wondered why more people aren’t implementing these simple and effective principles in North America. Perhaps it’s because we’re so accustomed to defining the Christian life as attending a service on Sunday morning. Maybe our lives are so full of sports and leisure activities that we think we don’t have time to live out these simple, reproducible principles. Whatever the reason, we need to find a way to mobilize hundreds and thousands of prayer advocates and implementers if we intend to catch up with what God is doing in many other parts of the world.

My journey toward movement thinking was slow. But it was a huge transition. I’m thankful to the advocate who helped me along the way. And I’m most thankful to God for his patience and grace in my life. I look forward to stories like this from other leaders and organizations.

(1)  For answers to questions such as these, see, for example, “The Story of Movements and the Spread of the Gospel,” “A Still Thriving Middle-aged Movement” and “How Movements Count.”

About Movements

How God is Moving Toward No Place Left in Haiti

How God is Moving Toward No Place Left in Haiti

By Jephte Marcelin

I am one of the servants in No Place Left Haiti. Our vision to faithfully obey Jesus by making disciples who make disciples, planting churches that plant churches, and mobilizing missionaries to the nations until there’s no place left. We do this by entering empty fields, sharing the gospel with anyone who will listen, discipling those who respond, forming them into new churches, and raising up leaders from within them to repeat the process. This is happening in every different location in Haiti. As these churches gather in homes, under trees, and everywhere, we are seeing new leaders and teams being raised up from the harvest. 

A great example of this is Joshua Jorge, one of our team leaders. He is laboring for no place left in Ganthier, an area located in Southeast Haiti. Recently, he sent out two of his Timothies, Wiskensley and Renaldo, to an area called Anse-à-Pitres. Following the example of Luke 10, they went with no extra provisions and searched for a house of peace. They arrived and immediately began sharing the gospel house-to-house, asking the Lord to lead them to God-prepared people. After a few hours, they met a man in the street named Calixte. As they shared with him about the hope found only in Jesus, he received the gospel and gave his life to Jesus.

Wiskensley and Renaldo asked Calixte where he lived and he led them to his home. They entered the house, shared Jesus with his entire family and they all chose to follow Jesus that day. These two ambassadors spent the next four days with this family, training them and taking them out into the harvest to share with their neighbors. During those four days, 73 people turned and believed in Jesus, 50 of them were baptized, and they formed a new church in Calixte’s home. Wiskensley and Renaldo continued to return to train a few emerging leaders in simple, biblical, reproducible tools. Within just a few weeks, this new church had already multiplied into two other churches! Praise Jesus! 

My people have been physically and spiritually oppressed for generations. Haiti tells people, “You cannot follow Jesus until your life is clean.” They say, “Do not read the Bible because you will not understand it.” Jesus says, “Come follow me and I will make you fishers of men.” Now we are listening to Jesus. Haitians are finding freedom in the Gospel of Grace. As we follow Jesus’ Kingdom strategy given to us in the Gospels and in the book of Acts, being faithful to obey all of His commands, the Lord of the harvest is doing a great work. We are truly experiencing a movement of the Spirit of God. Thousands of Haitians are accepting their identity as ambassadors for Christ and thousands of new Jesus gatherings are being formed. We are not seeking to build our own kingdom, but giving away God’s Kingdom. And He is multiplying it!

We began implementing movement principles in February 2016. We are now tracking seven streams of 4th generation churches (and more) representing more than 3,000 new churches and 20,000 baptisms. 

Jephte Marcelin is a native of Haiti, laboring to see no place left where the gospel has not yet been made known. At age 22, Jephte turned down a bright future as a medical doctor to pursue God’s plan for his life as a movement catalyst.

This is from an article that appeared in the January-February 2018 issue of Mission Frontiers,, pages 21-22, and published on pages 133-135 of the book 24:14 – A Testimony to All Peoples, available from 24:14 or Amazon.

About Movements

Clarifying Some Misconceptions – Part 2

Clarifying Some Misconceptions – Part 2

– By Tim Martin and Stan Parks –

In part 1 we will addressed eight questions related to frequent misconceptions.Here are five more.

9. Are there CPMs in the Bible?

“Church Planting Movement” is a modern term to describe something that has happened throughout Church history.

Church Planting Movements have existed since the first century of the Christian era. You only have to read between the lines to see Church Planting Movements as the back-story for the rise of Christianity from Christ to Constantine. In the Book of Acts, Luke reported that: “all the Jews and Greeks who lived in the province of Asia heard the word of the Lord” (Acts 19:10, NIV). The Apostle Paul commended the Thessalonians through whom “the Lord’s message…has become known everywhere” (1 Thess. 1:8a, NIV), and near the end of his life declared: “there is no more place for me to work in these regions” (Romans 15:23a, NIV), because of his desire “to preach the gospel where Christ was not known” (Romans 15:20a, NIV).

10. Is the CPM approach against traditional churches?

God is using many kinds of churches to accomplish His purposes in the world. We are all parts of the Body of Christ and we need to honor each other. At the same time, church history and current global realities make this very clear: the Great Commission cannot be completed using only traditional church models. The amount of resources needed for a traditional Western-style church does not allow for Kingdom growth to exceed population growth. Also, cultural patterns from the Western world often make a poor medium for bringing the gospel to non-Westerners. And most of the world’s unreached peoples are non-Western. The primary push for CPMs is to reach those not being reached and unlikely to be reached by traditional church patterns. Simple and easily reproducible biblical patterns offer the best hope for bringing the gospel to all peoples. God is using patterns such as these to bring CPMs among the unreached. So for anyone serious about reaching the unreached in significant numbers, we strongly recommend ministry patterns aiming to catalyze a CPM.

11. Doesn’t rapid multiplication increase the possibility for heresy?

Actually, heresy seems less prevalent in movements than in some traditional churches. This is because of the very interactive nature of their discipleship. The enemy sows seeds of heresy among groups of believers whether in movements or traditional churches. The question is not whether the enemy will sow such problems. The question is whether we are equipping disciples and churches to guard against false teachings and address them when they arise. Even the New Testament church faced such challenges. Equipping believers to rely on Scripture as their authority and study the Scripture together as the body (one example is that in Acts 17:11 the Bereans seem to have received and examined the Scripture together) helps guard against creative and eloquent false teachers.

Heresy usually comes from influential, dynamic, and persuasive leaders and/or institutions. We avoid and deal with heresy by going back to God’s Word and self-correcting according to God’s Word. The strategies movements use to make disciples are very Bible-based. They bring questions back to the Word of God, in order for God’s Word to be the source for answers, not a human authority.

A focus on obedience-based discipleship instead of knowledge-based discipleship also protects against heresy. Disciples don’t just gain knowledge. The measure of their discipleship is obedience to that knowledge.

12. Does rapid growth of a movement lead to shallow discipleship?

Shallow discipleship tends to take place when new believers learn that:

  • The main thing expected of them is to attend church meetings once or twice a week.
  • Obedience to Scripture is encouraged but not required.
  • They will receive God’s most important teachings from a church leader.

Sadly, these are among the messages many believers around the world receive.
The best way to nurture real discipleship is to train new believers to:

  • Interact with God’s Word (the Bible) for themselves and discover (together with other
    believers) what it says and how it applies to their lives.
  • Obey what they believe God is telling them to do through His Word.
  • Share the “real situation” of their lives with other followers of Jesus, pray for and encourage one another, and apply the “one anothers” of the NT.
  • Share the reality of life in Christ with those who don’t yet know Him.

These patterns of real discipleship are at the heart of Church Planting Movements.

13. Aren’t movements just a fad?

Movements have existed throughout history. Note the book of Acts, the Celtic movement led by Patrick, the Moravian movement, the Wesleyan movement, the Welsh revival, etc. A new wave of movements began in 1994. This wave is increasing exponentially through the present, with over 700 identified movements.

Like the early church, these movements are messy. They are full of humans and human weaknesses and God’s strength despite those weaknesses. If you have other questions or other answers we would be glad to dialogue. You can contact us through our website at

After a career in international oil and gas where Tim served as VP of International Exploration and Development, in 2006 he became the first missions pastor at WoodsEdge Community Church in Spring, Texas. His role became more focused in 2018 when he became the “Pastor of Disciple-Making Movements.”  Tim has been a student and trainer in biblical movements for several years and has a passion to see Matthew 24:14 fulfilled.

Stan Parks Ph.D. serves the 24:14 Coalition (Facilitation Team), Beyond (VP Global Strategies), and Ethne (Leadership Team).  He is a trainer and coach for a variety of CPMs globally and has lived and served among the unreached since 1994.

Edited from an article originally published in the January-February 2019 issue of Mission
Frontiers,, pages 38-40, and published on pages 323-330 of the book 24:14 – A Testimony to All Peoples, available from 24:14 or Amazon.

(1) This paragraph is excerpted and edited from “10 Church Planting Movement FAQs”
( by David Garrison, in the
March-April 2011 issue of Mission Frontiers.

About Movements

Clarifying Some Misconceptions – Part 1

Clarifying Some Misconceptions – Part 1

– By Tim Martin and Stan Parks –

1.  24:14? Who are you?

We are a coalition of like-minded individuals, practitioners and organizations who have made a commitment to a vision: seeing movements in every unreached people and place. Our initial goal is see effective kingdom movement engagement in every unreached people and place by December 31, 2025. We do this based on four values:

  1. Reaching the unreached in line with Matthew 24:14 – bringing the gospel of the Kingdom to every unreached people and place.
  2. Accomplishing this through Church Planting Movements, involving multiplying disciples, churches, leaders and movements.
  3. Having a wartime sense of urgency to engage every unreached people and place with a movement strategy by the end of 2025.
  4. Doing these things in collaboration with others.

2.  Why do you use the name 24:14?

Matthew 24:14 forms the cornerstone for this initiative. Jesus promised: “This gospel of the kingdom will be preached in the whole world as a testimony to all nations (ethnē), and then the end will come” (NIV). Our focus is to have the gospel go to every people group on earth. We long to be in the generation that finishes what Jesus began and what faithful workers before us have given their lives to. We know that Jesus waits to return until every people group has had an opportunity to respond to the gospel and become part of His Bride. 

3.  Are you setting 2025 as the year that all nations will be reached?

No, our goal is to engage every unreached people and place with an effective kingdom movement strategy by December 31, 2025. This means that a team (local or expat or combination) equipped in movement strategy will be on location in every unreached people and place. We make no claims about when the Great Commission task will be finished. That is God’s responsibility. He determines the fruitfulness of movements.

4.  Why do you feel such urgency in moving this forward?

2000 years have passed since Jesus spoke the Great Commission. 2 Peter 3:12 tells us to “hasten the day of his return.” Psalm 90:12 tells us to number our days. A group of 24:14 founders waited on the Lord and asked if we should set a deadline or not. We felt Him telling us that by setting an urgent deadline, we could make wiser use of our time and make the sacrifices needed to fulfill the vision.

5.  Are you trying to get all missions organizations to align around your strategy?

No, we recognize that God has called many churches, mission organizations and networks to specialized ministries. The 24:14 Coalition consists of people and organizations focused on catalyzing movements. Some have already done and are doing this; others are working toward that end. Various organizations and workers have unique methods and tools but we all share many of the same CPM distinctives. These are strategies based on applying in modern contexts patterns of disciple-making and church formation we see in the Gospels and the book of Acts.   

6.  There have been other attempts to get people to collaborate on finishing the Great Commission. What is different about 24:14?

24:14 builds on these other good initiatives. Some of the previous ones helped the global church reach certain milestones (e.g. adopting people groups). 24:14 aims to finish what others have started by catalyzing movements. These movements can reach entire people groups and places in a sustained manner. The 24:14 coalition partners with other networks such as Ethne, Finishing the Task, Global Alliance on Church Planting Multiplication (GACX), and Global Church Planting Network (GCPN). 24:14 is unique in being led by church planting movement leaders. And experience in movements (particularly among the unreached) has increased substantially in recent years. This has resulted in much-improved “best practices.”

7.  What is a “Church Planting Movement?”

A Church Planting Movement (CPM) is defined as the multiplication of disciples making disciples and leaders developing leaders. This results in indigenous churches planting churches. These churches begin to spread quickly through a people group or population segment. These new disciples and churches begin to transform their communities as the new Body of Christ lives out Kingdom values.

When churches reproduce consistently to four generations in multiple streams, the process becomes a sustaining movement. It may take years to begin. But once the first churches start, we usually see a movement reach four generations within three to five years. In additional, these movements themselves often reproduce new movements. More and more, CPMs are starting new CPMs within other people groups and population segments.

8.  What is your definition of church?

Acts 2:36-47.

There are a variety of definitions around the world. Yet most of these movements would agree on core elements in a definition of church. These are found in the description of the first church in Acts 2. In fact, many movements lead a newly baptized group of disciples to study Acts 2. They then begin to pray and work out how they can become this type of church. We encourage you to do this exercise with your own church.

These churches go on to study and apply many more aspects of being church from the New Testament. We encourage you to have a definition of church, no more and no less than the New Testament gives us. 

In part 2 we will address five additional questions related to frequent misconceptions. 

After a career in international oil and gas where Tim served as VP of International Exploration and Development, in 2006 he became the first missions pastor at WoodsEdge Community Church in Spring, Texas. His role became more focused in 2018 when he became the “Pastor of Disciple-Making Movements.”  Tim has been a student and trainer in biblical movements for several years and has a passion to see Matthew 24:14 fulfilled.

Stan Parks Ph.D. serves the 24:14 Coalition (Facilitation Team), Beyond (VP Global Strategies), and Ethne (Leadership Team).  He is a trainer and coach for a variety of CPMs globally and has lived and served among the unreached since 1994.

Edited from an article originally published in the January-February 2019 issue of Mission Frontiers,, pages 38-40, and published on pages 323-326 of the book 24:14 – A Testimony to All Peoples, available from 24:14 or Amazon.

About Movements

Mindshifts in Movements – Part 2

Mindshifts in Movements – Part 2

– By Elizabeth Lawrence and Stan Parks –

In part 1, we shared some ways the Lord’s great work in CPMs calls us to adjust our thinking. Here are some additional ways we see CPMs calling us to adjust our thinking.

From: We are looking for partners in our ministry.
To: We are looking for brothers and sisters to serve God together. 

Sometimes missionaries are taught to look for “national partners.” Without questioning anyone’s motives, some local believers find this phrasing doubtful. Some of the wrong (often subconscious) meanings could include: 

  • “Partnership” with an outsider means doing what they want done.
  • In a partnership the person(s) with the most money controls the partnership.
  • This is a “work” type transaction rather than a genuine personal relationship.
  • The use of “national” may feel condescending (as a more polite word for “native” – why are Americans not also called “nationals”?).

In the dangerous and difficult work of starting movements among the lost, inside catalysts are looking for a deep family bond of mutual love. They don’t want work partners but rather movement family who will bear each other’s burdens and sacrifice in any way possible for their brothers and sisters. 

From: Focusing on winning individuals.
Focusing on groups — to bring the gospel into existing families, groups and communities.

90% of salvations described in the book of Acts describe either large or small groups. Only 10% are individuals who experience salvation by themselves. We also see Jesus focusing on sending out his disciples to look for households, and we see Jesus often reaching households. Note examples such as Zacchaeus and his entire household experiencing salvation (Luke 19:9-10), and the Samaritan woman coming to faith along with a great many from her entire town (John 4:39-42).

Reaching groups has many advantages over reaching and gathering individuals. For example:

  • Instead of transferring “Christian culture” to a single new believer, local culture begins to be redeemed by the group.
  • Persecution isn’t isolated and focused on the individual but is normalized across the group. They can support each other in persecution.
  • Joy is shared as a family or community discovers Christ together.
  • Unbelievers have a visible example of “here’s what it looks like for a group of people like me to follow Christ.”

From: Transferring my church or group’s doctrine, traditional practices, or culture.
Helping believers within a culture discover for themselves what the Bible says about vital issues; letting them hear God’s Spirit guide them in how to apply biblical truths in their cultural context.

We can too easily confuse our own preferences and traditions with scriptural mandates. In a cross-cultural situation we especially need to avoid giving our cultural baggage to the new believers. Instead, we trust that since Jesus said: “They will all be taught by God” (John 6:45, NIV), and the Holy Spirit will guide the believers “into all truth” (John 16:13), we can trust the process to God. This does not mean we don’t guide and coach new believers. It means that we help them see Scripture as their authority rather than us.

From: Starbucks discipleship: “Let’s meet once each week.”
Lifestyle discipleship: My life is intertwined with these people.

One movement catalyst said that his movement trainer-coach offered to talk to him whenever he needed…so he ended up calling him in a different city three or four times every day. We need this type of commitment to help those who are passionate and desperate to reach the lost. 

From: Lecture – to transfer knowledge.
Discipleship – to follow Jesus and obey his Word.

Jesus said, “If you love me you will obey my commands” (John 15:14, NCV) and “If you obey me you will remain in my love” (John 15:10, author’s translation). Often our churches emphasize knowledge over obedience. The people with the most knowledge are considered the most qualified leaders. 

Church planting movements emphasize teaching people to obey all that Jesus commanded (Matthew 28:20). Knowledge is important but the primary foundation must be first loving and obeying God.  

From: Sacred/secular divide; evangelism vs. social action.
Word and deed together. Meeting needs as a door-opener and an expression and fruit of the gospel.  

The sacred/secular divide is not part of a biblical worldview. Those in CPMs don’t debate whether to meet physical needs or share the gospel. Because we love Jesus, of course we meet people’s needs (as he did) and as we do that we also share his truth verbally (as he did). In these movements we see the natural expression of meeting needs leading people to be open to the words or to ask questions that lead to the truth. 

From: Special buildings for spiritual activities.
Small gatherings of believers in all kinds of places.

 Church buildings and paid church leaders hinder the growth of a movement. Rapid spread of the gospel happens through the efforts of nonprofessionals. Even reaching the number of lost people in the USA becomes prohibitively expensive if we attempt to reach them only through church buildings and paid staff. How much more so in other parts of the world that have fewer financial resources and higher percentages of unreached people!

From: Don’t evangelize until you’ve been trained.To: Share what you’ve experienced or know. It’s normal and natural to share about Jesus. 

How often are new believers asked to sit and listen for the first several years after they come to faith? It often takes many years before they are considered qualified to lead in any way. We have observed that the best people to lead a family or community to saving faith are insiders in that community. And the best time for them to do that is when they have newly come to faith, before they’ve created separation between themselves and that community.

Multiplication involves everyone and ministry happens everywhere. A new/inexperienced insider is more effective than a highly trained mature outsider.

From: Win as many as possible.
Focus on the few (or one) to win many.

In Luke 10 Jesus said to find a household that will receive you. If a person of peace is there they will receive you. At that point, do not move around from household to household. We often see this pattern being applied in the New Testament. Whether it’s Cornelius, Zacchaeus, Lydia or the Philippian jailer, this one person then becomes the key catalyst for their family and broader community. One large family of movements in harsh environments actually focuses on the tribal leader or the network leader rather than individual household leaders. 

To make disciples of all nations, we don’t just need more good ideas. We don’t just need additional fruitful practices. We need a paradigm shift. The mindshifts presented here reflect various facets of that shift. To the extent we wrestle with and apply any one of them we will likely become more fruitful. But only as we buy the whole package – trade in traditional church DNA for CPM DNA – can we hope to be used by God in catalyzing rapidly reproducing generational movements that far exceed our own resources.



Elizabeth Lawrence has over 25 years of cross-cultural ministry experience.  This includes training, sending, and coaching CPM teams to unreached peoples, living among refugees from a UPG, and leading a BAM endeavor in a Muslim context.  She is passionate about multiplying disciples.

Adapted from an article in the May-June 2019 issue of Mission Frontiers,, and published on pages 55-64 of the book 24:14 – A Testimony to All Peoples, available from 24:14 or Amazon.

About Movements

Mindshifts in Movements – Part 1

Mindshifts in Movements – Part 1

– By Elizabeth Lawrence and Stan Parks –

God is doing great things through Church Planting Movements (CPMs) around the world in our day. CPM does not mean traditional church planting becoming very fruitful. CPM describes the God-given fruit of a distinctive ministry approach – unique CPM-oriented “DNA.” The perspectives and patterns of a CPM differ in many ways from the patterns of church life and ministry that feel “normal” to many of us. 

Note, we want to identify paradigms we have seen God change for many of us involved in CPMs. But before examining these, we want to clarify: we don’t believe that CPM is the only way to do ministry or that anyone not doing CPM has a mistaken paradigm. We greatly honor all those who have gone before; we stand on their shoulders. We also honor others in the Body of Christ who serve faithfully and sacrificially in other types of ministries. 

For this context, we will mainly examine paradigm differences for Westerners seeking to help catalyze a CPM. Those of us who want to be involved need to notice what shifts have to happen in our own mindsets to create an environment for movements.  Mindshifts enable us to see things differently and creatively.  These perspective changes lead to different behaviors and results.  Here are a few ways the Lord’s great work in CPMs calls us to adjust our thinking.


From: “This is possible; I can see a path to accomplishing my vision.”

To: A God-sized vision, impossible apart from His intervention. Waiting on God for his guidance and power. 


One of the main reasons so many CPMs seem to have started in modern times is that people accepted a God-sized vision of focusing on reaching entire people groups. When faced with the task of reaching an unreached group consisting of millions of people it becomes obvious that a worker cannot accomplish anything on their own. The truth that “apart from me you can do nothing” applies to all our endeavors. However, if we have a smaller goal it’s easier to work as if fruit depends on our efforts rather than on God’s intervention. 


From: Aiming to disciple individuals.

To: Aiming to disciple a nation.


In the Great Commission Jesus tells his disciples to “make disciples of panta ta ethne” (all ethne / every ethnos). The question is: “How do you disciple an entire ethnos?” The only way is through multiplication — of disciples who make disciples, churches that multiply churches, and leaders who develop leaders.


From: “It can’t happen here!”

To: Expecting a ripe harvest.


Over the last 25 years people have often said: “Movements can start in those countries, but they can’t start here!” Today people point to the many movements in North India but forget this region was the “graveyard of modern missions” for 200+ years. Some said, “Movements can’t happen in the Middle East because that’s the heartland of Islam!” Yet many movements now thrive in the Middle East and throughout the Muslim world. Others said, “It can’t happen in Europe and America and other places with traditional churches!” Yet we now have seen a variety of movements start in those places as well. God loves to overcome our doubts.


From: “What can I do?”

To: “What must be done to see God’s Kingdom planted in this group of people (city, nation, language, tribe, etc.)?


A training group was once discussing Acts 19:10 — how approximately 15 million people in the Roman province of Asia heard the word of the Lord in two years. Someone said, “That would be impossible for Paul and the original 12 believers in Ephesus – they would have had to share with 20,000 people a day!” That is the point – there is no way they could accomplish that. A daily training in the hall of Tyrannus must have multiplied disciples who multiplied disciples who multiplied disciples throughout the region.


From: “What can my group accomplish?”

To: “Who else can be a part of accomplishing this impossibly great task?”


This is similar to the mindshift above. Instead of focusing on the people and resources in our own church, organization, or denomination, we have realized we need to look at the entire body of Christ globally with all types of Great Commission organizations and churches. We also need to involve people with a variety of giftings and vocations to address the many efforts needed: prayer, mobilization, finances, business, translation, relief, development, arts, etc. 


From: I pray.

To: We pray extraordinarily and mobilize others to pray. 


We aim to reproduce everything. Obviously personal prayer is crucial, but when faced with the overwhelming task of reaching entire communities, cities and people groups — we need to mobilize the prayer of many others.


From: My ministry is measured by my fruitfulness.

To: Are we faithfully setting the stage for multiplication (which may or may not happen during our ministry)?


Growth is God’s responsibility (1 Cor. 3:6-7). Sometimes attempting to catalyze the first multiplying churches can take quite a few years. Field workers are told, “Only God can produce fruitfulness. Your job is to be faithful and obedient while expecting God to work.” We do our best to follow patterns of disciple-making multiplication found in the New Testament, and we trust the Holy Spirit to bring the growth. 


From: The outside missionary is a “Paul,” preaching on the front lines among the unreached.

To: The outsider is far more effective as a “Barnabas,” discovering, encouraging and empowering a nearer-culture “Paul.”


People sent out as missionaries have often been encouraged to view themselves as the front-line worker, modeled after the Apostle Paul. We now realize that the far outsider can instead have the greatest impact by finding and partnering with cultural insiders or near neighbors who become the “Pauls” for their communities.

Note first that Barnabas was also a leader who “did the work” (Acts 11:22-26; 13:1-7). So movement catalysts need to first gain experience making disciples in their own culture and then work cross-culturally to find those “Pauls” from the focus culture whom they can encourage and empower.

Second, even these “Pauls” have to adjust their paradigms. The outside catalysts of a large movement in India studied Barnabas’ life to better understand their role. They then studied the passages with the initial “Pauls” of this movement. Those leaders in turn realized that contrary to their cultural patterns (that the initial leader is always preeminent), they in turn wanted to become like Barnabas and empower those they discipled, to have an even greater impact.


From: Hoping a new believer or group of new believers will initiate a movement.

To: Asking: “What national believers who have been followers for many years might become the catalyst(s) for a CPM?” 


This relates to the common idea that we as a culturally distant outsider will find and win a lost person(s) who will become the movement catalyst. While this can occasionally happen, the vast majority of movements are started by cultural insiders or near neighbors who have been believers for several or even many years. Their own mindset shifts and fresh understanding of CPM principles open up new possibilities for Kingdom expansion.

In part 2, we will share some additional ways the Lord’s great work in CPMs calls us to adjust our thinking.



Elizabeth Lawrence has over 25 years of cross-cultural ministry experience.  This includes training, sending, and coaching CPM teams to unreached peoples, living among refugees from a UPG, and leading a BAM endeavor in a Muslim context.  She is passionate about multiplying disciples.

Adapted from an article in the May-June 2019 issue of Mission Frontiers,

About Movements

The Role of the Outsider in Movements

The Role of the Outsider in Movements

In 2019, a number of movement practitioners gathered to explore  new models of missionary training.  The room was mixed with a majority of western “missions workers” and several national disciple-making movement leaders.  We facilitated a listening session in which we asked these national leaders their insights on the role of outsiders catalyzing new works in their regions. While welcoming movement efforts, they spoke into the ideal posture of outsiders as they enter into new unreached fields. Their insights can apply to any outsider entering a new harvest field. They can help us understand our role and provide a gentle corrective lens to enable us to see the gold in front of us.

Their insights can be unpacked into ten recommendations that anyone looking to go to the mission field or send workers to a field would do well to listen to:

Be an Example. Outsiders need “street credibility.” Making disciples and planting churches involve trials and suffering. These things create a depth in the outsider that insiders notice and feel. They appreciate the patience and humility that come with walking those paths. Modeling involves not just learning theology or tools. It’s a lifestyle of prayer, labor, perseverance, releasing responsibility, and trusting God.

Be Relational. Locals can feel a difference when an outsider comes with a zeal for movement methods that outweighs love for people. Relationship precedes strategy. An overly-transactional desire to get the job done grates on people in a relational culture. Movement leaders in our meetings marveled at how much Western outsiders talked about “boundaries” without considering the needs and perspectives of the local people they were holding at arm’s length. Additionally, local believers are not especially impressed by outsiders’ great tools and methods. They need to know, love and respect the person with whom they partner. Working to become like family may feel slow, but it paves the best path to fruitfulness.

Be Humble. The world operates on a hierarchical framework. As a contrast, Jesus told us “not so among you” (Mark 10:43). Don’t come in as a boss, but treat the insider leader as a friend. Empower them and release control (something many of us find difficult!). Knowing that control tends to kill movements, work to establish “a round table, not a rectangular one.” Listening well to others shows respect, love, and care. Experienced ministers feel honored when you take the time to understand their world, and work with them and through them (not for them, or them for you).

Be a Culture Learner. Local believers often puzzle over how culturally unaware outsiders are as they bring the gospel message to a new harvest field. We need to recognize that when we arrive as an outsider we bring with us the fragrance of our home culture. This affects how we communicate, how we correct, the alliances we carry, the biases we live with, and the ways we get things done. Even the tools we bring in carry cultural baggage. Commit to learn the language and operate through the local culture, discovering with local people how to bring kingdom light that makes us all more like Jesus.

Be Patient. Movement leaders recounted how outsiders often arrive with their tools and methods and say: “I know this will work here because it has worked somewhere else.” A patient relational approach allows for a period of settling in, where outsiders and insiders learn from one other under the direction of the Holy Spirit and trust can blossom. Patience on the part of the outsider demonstrates humility and a recognition that the cultural insider has much they can contribute, to help enculturate the principles behind fruitful tools.

 Be a Prayer Leader. Outsiders need to lead out in prayer, though they may find that local people often do it better than they do. Outsiders do, however, have the ability to catalyze outside prayer networks in strategic ways that can change realities on the ground. Connecting local believers with these prayer networks allows them access to a resource that may be hard for them to find without the connection through an outsider.

Be a Vision Caster and Catalyzer of Insiders. Movement leaders tell stories of outsiders who cast a vision for them to be the “laborers in the harvest” and dreamed with them about what is possible. Outsiders can create a broad base of relationships and help various networks unify. We also heard movement leaders share how their connection with outsiders exposed them to a new vision to reach unreached people groups and connect to the 24:14 Vision for their region. Helping insiders connect to appropriate outside networks can also implant vision and catalyze new laborers.

Be a Mentor and Coach. Outsiders can play an important role as a life-on-life mentor. But movement leaders caution that transactional coaching strategies fall flat in relational cultures. What local leaders crave from their outside partners is time spent together exploring problems, with questions and cultural respect.

Be Dependent on the Word. Outsiders having a long history with God can help provide theological frameworks and dependency on God’s leadership through his word. A commitment to seek direction together from God and his word, and obey what it says, no matter what, models a reproducible life in God.

Be a Connector. An outsider will naturally be more trusted by other outsiders who have resources. An outside catalyst who has developed relationships with inside leaders can be a bridge, connecting them with Bibles, tools, or help with trainings that can help start new works. Outside catalysts can help with data gathering and reporting that helps the movement relate to other movements and networks.

As outside catalysts look to be effective in starting movements among the unreached, there is an example from many who have gone before on the most effective, God-honoring postures for those catalysts to take. May sending agencies send the kind of humble, honoring people that God can use to see His Kingdom come in every tongue, tribe, and nation.


Adapted from an Article by Chris McBride that appeared in the Sept / Oct 2020 Issue of Mission Frontiers Magazine..

About Movements

Definitions of Key Terms

Definitions of Key Terms

– By Stan Parks –

The Result and the Process: When modern “kingdom movements” began to emerge in the 1990s, the term “Church Planting Movements” (CPMs) was used to describe the visible results. Jesus promised to build his church, and these CPMs show him doing that in marvelous ways. He also assigned his followers a specific role toward that result: to make disciples of all ethnē. Our job is to implement the disciple-making processes by which Jesus builds his church. These processes, done well, can result in Church Planting Movements.

24:14 is not focused on just one set of tactics. We acknowledge that various individuals may prefer one approach or another or a combination thereof. We will continue to learn and use various methods – provided that they employ the proven biblical strategies resulting in reproducing disciples, leaders and churches. 

As CPMs emerged, best practice strategies and tactics to make reproducing disciples began to be identified and passed on. God has shown his creativity by using several sets of disciple-making “tactics” or processes to result in CPMs. These include: Disciple Making Movements (DMM), Four Fields, and Training for Trainers (T4T), as well as a variety of very fruitful indigenously developed approaches.  Closer examination of these approaches indicates that: 1) the CPM principles or strategies are mostly the same; 2) these approaches all are bearing fruit by reproducing disciples and churches; and 3) all reciprocally influence the other sets of tactics.

Key Definitions:

CPM Church Planting Movement (result): a multiplication of disciples making disciples, and leaders developing leaders, resulting in indigenous churches (usually house churches) planting more churches. These new disciples and churches begin spreading rapidly through a people group or population segment, meeting people’s spiritual and physical needs. They begin to transform their communities as the new Body of Christ lives out kingdom values. When consistent, multiple-stream 4th generation reproduction of churches occurs, church planting has crossed a threshold to becoming a sustainable movement. 

DMMDisciple Making Movement (a process toward a CPM): focuses on disciples engaging the lost to find persons of peace who will gather their family or circle of influence, to begin a Discovery Group. This is an inductive group Bible study process from Creation to Christ, learning directly from God through His Scripture. The journey toward Christ usually takes several months. During this process, seekers are encouraged to obey what they learn and share the Bible stories with others. When possible, they start new Discovery Groups with their family or friends. At the end of this initial study process, new believers are baptized. They then begin a several-month Discovery Bible Study (DBS) church-planting phase during which they are formed into a church. This process disciples the Discovery Group into a commitment to Christ, leading to new churches and new leaders who then reproduce the process.

Four Fields (a process toward a CPM): The 4 Fields of Kingdom Growth is a framework for visualizing the five things Jesus and his leaders did to grow the Kingdom of God: entry, gospel, discipleship, church formation, and leadership. This can be discovered from Mark 1. It follows the model of the parable of the farmer entering new fields, sowing seed, watching it grow even though he knows not how, and when the time is right, cutting and bundling the harvest together (Mark 4:26-29). The farmer works with the reminder that it is God who gives the increase (1 Corinthians 3:6-9). Like Jesus and his leaders, we need to have a plan for each field, but it is God’s Spirit that causes the growth. The 4 fields is usually trained sequentially, but in practice, the 5 parts happen simultaneously. 

T4T (a process toward a CPM): a process of mobilizing and training all believers to evangelize the lost (especially in their oikos or circle of influence), disciple the new believers, start small groups or churches, develop leaders, and train these new disciples to do the same with their oikos. Discipleship is defined as both obeying the Word and teaching others (hence, trainers). The goal is to help every generation of believers to train trainers, who can train trainers, who can train trainers. It equips trainers using a three-thirds process of discipleship each week – 1) looking back to evaluate and celebrate obedience to God, 2) looking up to receive from his Word and 3) looking ahead by setting prayerful goals and practicing how to impart these things to others. (This three-thirds process is also being used in other approaches.)


1st Generation ChurchesThe first churches started in the focus group/community.
2nd Generation ChurchesChurches started by the 1st generation churches. (Note that this is not biological or age-related generations.)
3rd Generation ChurchesChurches started by 2nd generation churches.
Bi-VocationalSomeone who is in ministry while maintaining a full time job.
Church CircleA diagram for a church using basic symbols or letters from Acts 2:36-47 to define which elements of the church are being done and which need to be incorporated.
Discovery Bible Study (DBS) is the Process & Discovery Group (DG) is the PeopleA simple, transferable group learning process of inductive Bible study which leads to loving obedience and spiritual reproduction. God is the teacher and the Bible is the sole authority. A DBS can be done by pre-believers (to move them toward saving faith) or by believers (to mature their faith). A DG for pre-believers begins with finding a Person of Peace (Luke 10:6), who gathers his/her extended relational network. A DG is facilitated (not taught) by using some adaptation of seven questions:
1 - What are you thankful for?
2 - What are you struggling with / stressed by? After reading the new story:
3 - What does this teach us about God?
4 - What does this teach us about ourselves / people?
5 - What is God telling you to apply / obey?
6 - Is there some way we could apply this as a group?
7 - Who are you going to tell?
End VisionA short statement that is inspirational, clear, memorable, and concise, describing a clear long-term desired change resulting from the work of an organization or team.
Five-Fold GiftingFrom Ephesians 4:11 – Apostle, Prophet, Evangelist, Shepherd (Pastor), Teacher. APEs tend to be more pioneering, focusing on expanding the kingdom among new believers. STs tend to be more focused on depth and health of the disciples and churches, focusing on the same people over longer periods of time.
Generational MappingMultiple Church Circles linked generationally into streams to help determine the health of each church and the depth of generational growth in each stream.
Great Commission ChristianA Christian committed to seeing the Great Commission fulfilled.
Great Commission WorkerA person committed to investing their best time and effort in fulfilling the Great Commission.
Hub (CPM Training Hub):A physical location or network of workers in an area that trains and coaches Great Commission workers in practically implementing CPM practices and principles. The hub may also involve other aspects of missionary training.
CPM Training Phases (for Cross-Cultural
Phase 1 Equipping – A process (often at a CPM Hub) in the home culture of a team (or individual). Here they learn to live out CPM practices among at least one population group (majority or minority) in their context.

Phase 2 Equipping – A cross-cultural process among a UPG where a fruitful CPM team can mentor new workers for a year or more. There the new workers can see CPM principles in action among a group similar to the UPG on their hearts. They can also be mentored through general orientation (culture, government, national church, use of money, etc.), language learning, and establishing healthy habits in cross-cultural life and work.

Phase 3 Coaching – After Phase 2, an individual/team is coached while they seek to launch a CPM/DMM among an unserved population segment.

Phase 4 Multiplying – Once a CPM emerges in a population segment, rather than the outside catalyst(s) exiting, they help expand the movement to other unreached groups both near and far. At this stage, movements are multiplying movements.
IOI (Iron on Iron)An accountability session: meeting with leaders, reporting on what is happening, discussing obstacles, and solving problems together.
Legacy ChurchesA traditional church that meets in a building.
Majority WorldThe non-Western continents of the world, where most of the world’s population lives: Asia, Africa and South America.
Movement Catalyst
Model, Assist, Watch, Launch. A model for leadership development.
Movement CatalystA person being used by God (or at least aiming) to catalyze a CPM/DMM.
OikosThe Greek word best translated “household.” Because households in the NT context were normally much larger than just a nuclear family, the term can well be applied as “extended family” or “circle of influence.” Scripture shows that most people come to faith in groups (oikos). When these groups respond and are discipled together, they become a church (as we see, for example, in Acts 16:15; 1 Cor. 16:19 and Col. 4:15). This biblical approach also makes sense numerically and sociologically.
Oikos MappingDiagram of a plan to reach family, friends, coworkers, neighbors with the Good News.
Oral LearnerSomeone who learns through stories and orality, may have little to no literacy skills.
Person of Peace (POP)/House of Peace (HOP)Luke 10 describes a person of peace. This is a person who receives the messenger and the message and opens their family/group/community to the message.
Regional 24:14 Facilitation TeamsTeams of CPM-oriented leaders serving in specific regions of the world, committed to implementing the 24:14 vision in their region. These regions roughly follow the United Nations geoscheme. However, as 24:14 is a grassroots effort, regional teams are forming organically and do not perfectly mirror the United Nations geoscheme.
StreamA multi-generational, connected chain of church plants.
SustainabilityThe capacity to endure. Sustainable methodologies allow a church or community to continue an activity for years to come without further outside assistance.
Unengaged UPG (UUPG)A subset of global UPGs; a UPG not yet engaged by a church planting team.
Unreached People Group (UPG)A sizable distinct group that does not have a local, indigenous church that can bring the gospel to the whole group without the aid of cross-cultural missionaries. This group may be variously defined, including but not limited to ethno-linguistic or socio-linguistic commonality.




These definitions were originally published as “Appendix A” (pages 314-322) of the book 24:14 – A Testimony to All Peoples, available from 24:14 or Amazon.